08日本茶道,韩国茶礼

日本茶道
Japanese Tea Ceremony

南宋末期(公元1259年),24岁的日本南浦绍明禅师入宋求法,在径山寺学习了茶宴仪式。学成归国后,将径山寺的茶宴仪式带回日本,加上日本民族的礼仪规范而逐渐发展成盛行至今的具有“和、静、清、寂”精神的日本茶道。
茶道在日本很普遍,但在一般家庭里是没有茶室的。茶道主要作为一种礼仪,只在接待贵宾或在爱好茶道的人们聚会的特殊场合进行。
At the end of the South Song Dynasty (1259 AD), the 24-year-old Japanese Zen Master Nanpo Shōmyō came to China and learned the tea ceremony at the Jingshan Mountain Temple. He then brought back what he had learned to Japan, which was combined with the Japanese etiquette and gradually developed into a Japanese tea ceremony with the spirit of "harmony", "respect", "purity", and "tranquility" that has prevailed until now.
Tea ceremony is very popular in Japan, but there is no tea room in average families. The tea ceremony is only for the reception of distinguished guests, or for special occasions where people who like tea ceremony meet as a kind of etiquette.

茶道待客之礼仪与饮法程序:
(1)宾客进入“茶室”之后,依序面对主人就座,宾主对拜称“见过礼”,主人致谢成“恳敬词”。
(2)室内庄重肃穆,宾主正襟危坐,静看茶娘进退起跪调理茶具,并用小玉杵将碗里茶饼研碎。
(3)茶声沸响,主人则须恭接茶壶,将沸水注入碗中,使茶末散开,浮起乳白色沫花,香气溢出。
(4)将第一碗茶用文漆茶案托着,慢慢走向第一位宾客,跪在面前,以齐眉架势呈献。
(5)宾客叩头谢茶、接茶,主人亦须叩头答谢、回礼。
(6)如上一碗一碗注,一碗一碗献;待主人最后自注一碗,始得各捧起茶碗,轻嗅、浅啜、闲谈。
The etiquette and procedure of Japanese tea ceremony:
(1) After entering the "tea room", the guests take their seats in order facing the host. The guests and the host bow silently as the "meeting etiquette” and the host expresses thanks to the guests with “words showing respect.
(2) In the solemn interior of the tea room, the guests and the host sit upright, watching the tea girl go back and forth to prepare the tea set, and use the small jade stick to grind the tea cake in the bowl.
(3) When the water is boiling, the host takes over the teapot with respect and pours the boiling water into the bowl, with the tea spreading, the milky white foams floating and the fragrance coming into the air.
(4) Hold the first bowl of tea with the lacquer tea case, slowly move toward the first guest, kneel in front of the guest and present him with the tea bowl up in front of one’s brows.
(5) The guest kowtows to thank for the tea and takes the tea. The host then kowtows back too.
(6) The tea then is presented one bowl after another to all guests in the way in step 5 and the last bowl is for the host. Then all guests and host hold their own tea bowl, sniff slightly, drink slowly and chat casually.

韩国茶礼
Korean tea ceremony

韩国茶礼始于高丽王朝时期,并普及于王室、官员、僧道、百姓中。
The Korean tea ceremony began in the Korai Dynasty and was popular among the royal family, officials, martyrdom and common people.

韩国茶礼种类繁多、各具特色。如按名茶类型区分,有“抹茶法”、“饼茶法”、“钱茶法”、“叶茶法”4种。下面介绍韩国茶礼的叶茶法:
(1)迎宾:宾客光临,主人必先至大门口恭迎,并以“欢迎光临”“请进”等语句迎宾引路。而宾客必以年龄高低顺序随行。进茶室后,主人必立于东南向,向来宾再次表示欢迎后,坐东面西,而客人则坐西面东。
(2)温茶具:沏茶前,先收拾、折叠茶巾,将茶巾置茶具左边,然后将烧水壶中的开水倒进茶壶,温壶预热,再将茶壶中的水分别平均注入茶杯,温杯后即弃于茶水桶中。
(3)沏茶:主人打开壶盖,右手持茶匙,左手持茶罐,用茶匙舀出茶叶置壶中。根据不同季节,采用不同的投茶法,一般春秋季用中投法,夏季用上投法,冬季则用下投法。待泡好后,将茶壶中冲泡好的茶汤,按自右至左的顺序,分三次缓缓注入杯中,茶汤量以斟至杯中七分满为宜。
(4)品茗:茶沏好后,主人以右手举杯托,左手把住手袖,恭敬地将茶捧至来宾面前的茶桌上,再回到自己的茶桌前捧起自己的茶杯,对宾客行“注目礼”,口中说“请喝茶”,而来宾则回答“谢谢”后,宾主即可一起举杯品饮。在品茗的同时,可品尝各式糕饼、水果等清淡茶食用以佐茶。
South Korea's tea ceremony has a wide variety with unique characteristics. According to the types of tea, there are four kinds: “Tea Powder Method”, “Cake Tea Method”, “Qian Tea Method” and “Leaf Tea Method”. Here is the leaf tea method of Korean tea ceremony:
(1) Greetings: When guests come, the host will first come to the gate to welcome them with the words "Welcome" and "Please come in" and lead the way. Guests then come in one by one according to age priority. After entering the tea room, the host will stand in the southeast, greet the guests once again, and sit in the east facing west. The guests sit in the west facing east.
(2) Warming tea set: Before making tea, first pack and fold the tea towel and put it on the left side of the tea set. Then pour the boiling water in the kettle into the teapot to warm it, and then pour the water in the teapot into the tea cups on average to warm the cups. The water is discarded in the tea bucket finally.
(3) Making tea: The host opens the lid of the teapot, holding the teaspoon in the right hand, and the tea caddy in the left hand. Take out some tea with the teaspoon and put it in the teapot. According to different seasons, the orders of pouring tea and water are different. Generally speaking, in spring and autumn, the tea will be put into the teapot after pouring the first half water, and then the left half water be poured in. In summer, the tea will be put into the teapot after all water poured into the teapot. In winter, the tea will be put into the teapot before pouring water in. When the tea is ready, pour the tea into the cups to high-medium amount from the right to the left in 3 times.
(4) Tasting tea: When the tea is ready in the cups, the host puts the tea to the tea tables in front of the guests with respect, holding the cup saucer with the right hand and holds the right sleeve with the left hand. Then the host goes back to his own seat and pick up his own teacup, making eye contact with the guests and saying “Please enjoy the tea.” The guests reply with thanks. After that, the host and the guests taste the tea together. They may eat some refreshments like cakes and fruits while tasting tea.

08日本茶道,韩国茶礼